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Test Name:
Cardiolipin Antibody, IgG

  • SBMF No:
  • Performance Lab Name:
  • Test Mnemonic:
  • CPT Code:
  • Also Known As:
    ACL IgG Antibody; Anticardiolipin IgG Antibody; Phospholipid IgG Antibody
  • Also See:
    28104 Cardiolipin IgA Antibody
    28103 Cardiolipin IgM Antibody
  • Spec Type:
  • Spec Container:
    Gold top (SST) or red top (serum) tube
  • Pref Vol:
    0.5 mL
  • Min Vol:
    0.3 mL
  • Spec Collect:
    Routine venipuncture
  • Spec Process:
    Clot 30 minutes
    Promptly centrifuge 15 minutes
    Immediately transfer serum to separate plastic tube
    Properly centrifuged gel barrier tube sample does not require transfer of serum to separate tube
  • Spec Store Transport:
    Refrigerated (48 hours) or frozen
  • Spec Stability:
    8 hours room temperature (20-30°C)
    48 hours refrigerated (2-8°C)
    1 month frozen (-20°C) (avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles)
  • Spec Reject:
    Severely hemolyzed or lipemic sample
  • Methodology:
    Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
  • Use:
    To detect the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACL) that have been shown to be associated with recurrent vascular thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous abortions, and thrombocytopenia—a combination that has been termed “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome”
  • Clinical Significance:
    Autoantibodies directed against certain phospholipids, including anti-cardiolipin antibodies (ACL), have been shown to be associated with recurrent vascular thrombosis, recurrent spontaneous abortions, and thrombocytopenia. This combination has been termed “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.”
    ACL antibodies are similar to other antiphospholipid antibodies called lupus anticoagulants (LA) because they can be seen in as many as 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite its name and the associated prolongation of the PTT, there is a paradoxical increased association with recurrent thrombosis. ACL antibodies are also seen in patients with other autoimmune or connective tissue diseases, those undergoing chlorpromazine treatment, as well as patients with no known underlying diseases.
    Patients may demonstrate autoantibodies to either lupus anticoagulants or cardiolipin or both. The anticoagulant activity can be evaluated by the “Circulating Anticoagulant Detection Test.”
    The cardiolipin antibody test results are as either normal or low, moderate, and high positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Some authors have suggested that the criteria for diagnosis of “Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome” include both an abnormal clinical event (vascular thrombosis, immune thrombocytopenia, or recurrent abortion) as well as an abnormal laboratory test indicative of LA or a moderate or high titer of IgG ACL antibodies. Although there are individual patient exceptions, clinical symptoms are less common with ACL than with LA, particularly when the antiphospholipid syndromes are associated with infection or medication, are of low titer, and are of IgM isotype.
  • Reference Range:
    Normal: less than 20 GPL
    Low Positive: 20 to less than 30 GPL
    Moderate: 30 to less than 80 GPL
    High Positive: Equal to or greater than 80 GPL
  • Additional Test Info:
    Results in the Low Positive range are of questionable significance and must be carefully interpreted with regard to the clinical picture.
    Positive results for IgM only may be due to non-specific binding and should likewise be carefully interpreted.
    Most patients with “Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome” have moderate or high levels of cardiolipin antibodies and are positive for IgG only or IgG & IgM. Transiently positive tests do occur; thus, it is recommended that positive results be confirmed by follow-up assay in 8 weeks.

    Online LIS Test Build Information is not available for this test. For a complete test mix, contact interface support at ITDMUS@sbmf.org.

  • Day Run:
    Tue, Fri
  • Time Run:
    8:00 am
  • Time Reported:
    5:00 pm, next day
  • Test Type: